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International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry



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Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 38 (2018), No. 3     13. Apr. 2018
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 38 (2018), No. 3  (13.04.2018)

Page 431-441, doi:10.11607/prd.3503, PubMed:29641634

Microchemical and Micromorphologic ESEM-EDX Analysis of Bone Mineralization at the Thread Interface in Human Dental Implants Retrieved for Mechanical Complications After 2 Months to 17 Years
Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna / Zamparini, Fausto / Iezzi, Giovanna / Degidi, Marco / Botticelli, Daniele / Piattelli, Adriano / Prati, Carlo
The aim of this study was to analyze the degree of mineralization around nine clinically stable titanium dental implants retrieved after 2 months to 17 years for mechanical complications from five patients. The micromorphology and microchemistry of the interface bone at the coronal and apical sides of the threads were analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscope and energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) on histologic samples. Mineralization was investigated by atomic calcium-to-nitrogen (Ca/N), phosphorous-to-nitrogen (P/N), and calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) ratio evaluation (statistical analysis by two-way analysis of variance with Student-Newman-Keuls; P < .05). EDX showed higher Ca/N, P/N, and Ca/P values for the bone at the coronal side compared to the apical side of the threads in the long-term (≥ 14 years) samples. The two most significant findings were that (1) the interface bone located at the coronal side of the implant threads was generally more mineralized than the interface bone located at the apical side, and (2) the mineralization of the peri-implant bone at the interface increased over time. A higher degree of mineralization was found at 2 months in an immediately loaded implant when compared to the 2-month submerged unloaded control, likely related to the different remodeling events (coronal vs apical side of the implant threads) due to the direction of the loading forces.